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Czech, German, Hungarian, Irish, Slovenian, Spanish and British documents are the ones conceptualizing migration issues autonomously instead of just linking them with other risks and threats.

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Emigration issues are almost forgotten for every MS, except for Lithuania and Poland. So, we may conclude that the securitization of migration is very much the securitization of immigration and is more focused on securing the nation-state and its population than securing the im migrants. Though migration is recognized as a transnational phenomenon that requires cooperation, there is an uncertain path on how MS address, and in some cases even ignore, the cooperation with the EU on migration issues besides integrated border management.

In general, the lack of clear similar patterns of change reveals a divergent approach to migration-security nexus probably due to different security and defence strategic cultures inside the EU, though it is difficult to assess that just by analysing national security and defence strategies. Cooperation in migration issues is not a general standardized process controlled by the EU, rather showing a bilateral, multilateral or intergovernmental nature, taking place between MS or between the EU and some MS. Like monetary policy, migration issues are also based on a partial integration that creates difficulties for both European institutions and MS, stressing the democratic deficit of EU institutions and establishing the need for interstate cooperation to construct common migration policies Geddes, In the aftermath of the Schengen Agreement and the Dublin Convention, the EU began to reflect on the connection between immigration, terrorism, international crime and border control Huysmans, , p.

Border control must comply not only with the interests of MS, but also with the interests of the EU, and it seems clear that the political instability in the Mediterranean requires rethinking border management in that area. With the deepening external dimension of EU asylum policies comes increasing complexity and interdependence, demanding multilevel governance which may benefit from the participation of both countries of origin and transit countries Lavenex, , p. The difficulty to establish long-term agreements among MS regarding common migration and asylum policies seems evident, despite the progresses made since the first multiannual programme for Justice and Home Affairs.

From Tampere to Stockholm , with The Hague in between, the first decade of common policy in migration issues focused more on creating a baseline policy, dealing with border control and irregular immigration Collett, , p. EU lack of centralisation and leadership in managing immigration and asylum issues has ultimately led programmes to heavily depend on the cooperation between MS, resulting in hardly harmonised migration and asylum policies based on control and restrictive ideas. Since , the migration crisis has gone to the centre of both European and national political agendas in a time when MS were still unequally and slowly recovering their economic growth and employment rates.

The Mediterranean is a critical area in the transnational circulation of people, since it is the crossroads of different routes starting from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southwest Asia, which strengthen different South-North and South-South movements emerging from global demographic and economic unbalances Ferreira, b , p. In the recent past, the Mediterranean was already at the centre of the European political agenda due to the Arab Springs. Instead of centring the discussion on human rights, migration crisis debates were resting on burden-sharing and cross-Mediterranean cooperation Klug, , p.

The need for better cooperation does not imply that all MS must become hosting countries. It rather means that every MS should participate in a common strategy, either by hosting immigrants and refugees, or by sparing financial, human, and structural resources. However, there are several contradictory approaches, especially between transit countries such as Italy and Greece, main hosting countries such as Germany, France and Sweden, and countries belonging to the Visegrad group, for example Ferreira, b , pp. Outside the EU, the Syrian conflict and political instability in MENA region do not seem to suggest a decrease in migration and refugee flows during the next years, which makes even more urgent to review the Dublin system Ferreira, a , p.

So, besides border control, agreements with origin and transit countries, it is also important to create safe routes and easier legal integration options, especially to labour migrants. About asylum-seekers it is needed to speed up the procedures and the coordination between the EU and MS. As far as migration and asylum are concerned in the EUGS , the CSDP can be articulated with coastguard and border policing directed at ensuring the elimination of networks that traffic illegal migrants for profit. By assuming the current inadequacy of the EU migration and asylum policies, the need for a better understanding of migration-security nexus is evident.

One of the priorities for external action relates to the state and social resilience to the South and East. Therefore, migration policy deserves a prominent role and requires special action in the countries of origin and transit of migrants and refugees. This action seems to favour mobility, legal migration, border management, readmission and return, by developing common actions between countries of origin and countries of transit, aimed to respond and prevent the deep causes of displacements, manage migration dynamics in receiving countries more efficiently, and fight transnational criminality.

Regular channels for legal and circular human mobility must be guaranteed to block irregular flows, and this demands a common, more efficient European asylum system that may ensure a safe, regulated and legal arrival of refugees searching for international protection in the EU. By recognizing the transnational nature of migration, the approach demands the need to incorporate other international partners to guarantee the sharing of responsibilities and solidarity on a global level, especially with Turkey, one of the main transit countries outside the EU European Union, Two other issues seem relevant to point out: i the role of the EU in the future of currently highly unstable regions, such as North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, focusing its action on conflict resolution and promotion of human rights; and ii the development of multilateral relations involving political dialogue and cooperation in Central and Southern Asia and with different regional groups, in different domains including migration issues.

In sum, a greater cohesion is needed in all foreign and internal policies concerning migration, as well as the definition of balanced policies respectful of the current framework of human rights of the European legal system, and the management of both flows and structural causes. This reality will only be possible if the present fragmentation of foreign policies relevant to migration and asylum issues is addressed, and that includes MS collaboration. Recent migration crisis has been difficult to tackle, and its future seems to depend on two critical uncertainties: the evolution of political and social instability in MENA region, and the future of the EU.

In a time of globalisation, a blurring in the notions of border and a push towards a transformation in the concepts of citizenship and sovereignty could be expected, perhaps even threatening the Westphalian nation-state. However, globalization of migration led to increasing irregular migration flows and has resulted in the reinforcement of border control, has awaken growing nationalist narratives, and strengthened the separation between the national and the other.

These tensions between global and national levels show that globalization is still an ongoing process with many resistance forces. Migration and asylum policies within the EU depend on how the EU deals with globalisation and avoids new waves of protectionism among MS, sidestepping conflicted interests.

Though EUGS can be a standardising instrument for future national strategic revisions, both the EU and MS need higher strategic harmonisation to cope with the present migration crisis and to move towards a path of an effective common migration and asylum system. This article enlightens different levels of securitization of migration among MS and a heterogeneous presence of migration issues in national security and defence strategies, showing different approaches to migration-security nexus inside the EU.

When addressing the securitization of migration, the commitment to human security is insufficient if compared to national security on migration issues. Therefore, the securitization of migration seems to be much more directed to the nation-state rather than to people immigrants, asylum-seekers and refugees.

So far, when it comes to migration-security nexus, the institutional debate has been ruled by a national security lens, many times ignoring human insecurity of the people facing persecution in the country of origin or discrimination in their new country or even dying in transit.

But if the protection of human rights and human security is excluded from national security concerns, in the long-run, new and more intense risks and threats may arise to compromise national security. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Comparative Migration Studies. Comp Migr Stud. Published online Oct 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Aug 11; Accepted Jun 4. Different approaches to migration-security nexus among member states It is impossible to ignore the impact of international terrorism in the development of migration-security nexus. National security and defence strategies The evaluation of national strategies is based on similar strategic documents that are essential to understand MS strategic cultures and institutional securitization of migration, though they can present some variation due to overall differences in content and form, particularly in: i defining the security concept approach, ii characterising the national and global security environment, iii integrating the demography into the strategy.

Table 1 Migration-security nexus in national security and defence strategies. Open in a separate window. Czech Republic One of the most important trends and factors in the security environment is the importance of non-military threats, such as migration, placing demands on EU ability to respond independently and efficiently. Finland The security environment takes the EU into consideration as it is a major actor in many key areas related to societal development and comprehensive security. Germany Uncontrolled and irregular migration are explored as autonomous section of Challenges for German Security Policy.

Greece The generalised instability in the Middle East, Maghreb and Eastern Mediterranean, puts Greece in an extremely exposed position to the waves of immigrants and refugees, especially taking into consideration its extended sea borders and numerous islands, islets and rock-islets that may facilitate the conduct of illegal activities.

Hungary Hungarian security threats link migration with drug trafficking, but migration is explored autonomously as it can carry public and national security risks. Ireland Conflicts as the ones in North Africa and the Middle East can lead to humanitarian crisis, resulting in increases in refugees, migrants and internally displaced people, and that is an overarching trend in the world today. Italy Migration issues are mostly explored per feedback effects as demographic changes, scarcity of natural resources, conflict or poverty can originate increasing migratory pressure.

Lithuania One of the basic assumptions is that national security directly and indirectly depends on long-term challenges in Europe, being the management of irregular migration one of them, though it is a consequence of regional and global instability. Netherlands Netherlands Defence Doctrine recognizes demographic changes as one of the major trends for the national and international environment.

Poland Migration is presented as a sector of national security, being necessary to prevent uncontrollable mass migrations of population within the territory of Poland. Slovakia The Security Environment of the Slovak Republic identifies mass migration as an asymmetric threat that is expected to boost as failing states will increase. Slovenia Climate change, crisis areas, poverty and other social problems, terrorism and organised crime are global and transnational sources of threat and risk to national security and one of their indirect outcomes is an increase on migration flows, that can favour illegal migration and the trafficking of human beings.

Spain Irregular migratory flows are described as one of the main risks and threats that affect national security. United Kingdom Migration issues are part of both domestic and global security challenges, whether directly or due to the impact of instability like the conflicts in Syria and Iraq let to increasing mass migration and human trafficking. Table 2 Migration issues in national security and defence strategies.

Conclusion Recent migration crisis has been difficult to tackle, and its future seems to depend on two critical uncertainties: the evolution of political and social instability in MENA region, and the future of the EU. Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Competing interests The author declares that he has no competing interests.

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How Germany's open-door refugee policy helps fight terrorism

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New York: Oxford University Press; Government Offices of Sweden Why the speaker finally dropped her resistance to an impeachment inquiry of President Donald Trump. Leader of Greek Solution is a snake-oil salesman with a sideline in nationalism — and seats in the national and EU parliaments. Trump and Zelenskiy offer tense jokes and subtle jabs during a televised meeting at the United Nations.

Nancy Pelosi cast aside her caution and went for the I-word on Tuesday. But politics is much more tribal, primal even, than it was in the s. Trump survived scandals and threats to his presidency. His latest problem could be more challenging. From Bolsonaro to Sisi to Erdogan, the early speaking lineup at the U. General Assembly is replete with autocratic leaders.


Pedestrians near the bridge connecting Frankfurt Germany and Slubice Poland. The German chancellor's decision to open up the country to refugees led to wave after wave arriving through the so-called Western Balkans route into the south of Germany. That route's now all-but closed but official statistics, and local law enforcement, suggest Merkel now needs to look east, to the border with Poland , where the number of illegal crossings has skyrocketed. Many of those coming are asylum seekers from Chechnya, a predominately Muslim republic where separatists have fought several bloody wars against Russia , and some law enforcement officials worry they don't have enough resources to investigate the migrants' backgrounds, given that there are not enough translators and that reliable information from Chechnya and Russia can be hard to obtain.

Since the German border with Poland is open under the Schengen agreement, there are no official statistics on how many have crossed into the country this way. A massive backlog means it takes several months for asylum applications to be processed, so these numbers suggest the number of Russian asylum seekers increased at the same time as the spike in refugees from Syria and the wider Middle East.

Human rights activists say a lack of political freedom and brutal repression of dissidents in Chechnya is what's driving the increase in migration. And while federal officials don't collect records of how many of the migrants say they come from the Chechen republic, local officials say it's the majority. Unlike Germany, Poland does collect statistics on how many Chechens are seeking asylum. Every incident of terrorism is a tragedy. It is fortunate that such tragedies have been relatively rare.

Terrorist attacks by their very nature leave deeper scars on society than other forms of violence. The U.

Yet Mueller never withdrew his threat assessment. These officials viewed preparedness as their primary mission. But this sole focus missed other priorities that are standard in the field of public health, including a commitment to empirical evidence—responses to a threat must be proportional to the evidence of the threat, rather than fear and speculation, and these responses must constantly be reviewed and recalibrated as new evidence emerges. State Department has also reduced its estimate of the size of foreign terrorist organizations. Yet terrorism professionals have not updated their policy recommendations.

Instead, the notion of evolving threats has continued to justify the expansion of counterterrorism policies and security agencies, regardless of the actual scale of terrorism. The Department of Homeland Security budget, excluding disaster relief, doubled between fiscal year and fiscal year Exaggerated fear of terrorism has played a role in bigotry toward Muslims. In , 42 percent of Gallup survey respondents said they were worried that someone in their family would become a victim of terrorism.

Preparedness has begun to look like panic. Exaggerated fear of terrorism has played a role in bigotry toward Muslims, despite repeated statements by the George W. Bush and Obama administrations differentiating between Muslim extremists and Muslim communities at large.

Open borders questioned after Spain terror attacks

Another 21 percent said they were not sure. During the presidential race, Donald Trump stoked these fears, falsely claiming that there were thousands of shooters like Omar Mateen, the Orlando nightclub shooter, at large in the United States. There have been no Muslim mass shooters in the subsequent three years, while several far-right extremists have carried out shootings in alone—most recently at a Walmart in El Paso, Texas, where an anti-immigrant extremist shot 46 shoppers, killing The suspension of visas to citizens from several Muslim-majority countries was premised on the false suggestion that visitors from these countries posed a significant threat to the United States.

A wall along the U. Trump falsely claimed that a member of Congress, Rep. Ilhan Omar, supports terrorism.