Littlefield International. Why Does Knowing Matter? New York: Columbia University Press. Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago and Farrer, D. The Making of Political Identities. London: New York: Verso. Foucault, Michel. Laclau, Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe. Frank, Adam. Lefebvre, Augustins. Gillis, Alex. Liu, Petrus. Ithaca, N. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Goto-Jones, Christopher. Penguin Publishing Group. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Hall, Gary. London: Continuum. Marchart, Oliver. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Hall, Stuart.
Jones, David E. Westport, Conn. Monahan, Michael. Deconstruction and Pragmatism. London: Williams, Raymond. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford Verso. University Press. Mowitt, John. Text: The Genealogy of an Antidisciplinary Object. Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, Durham and London: Duke. Nicholls, Alex. Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism?
Wo Es War. Theory and Practice Protevi, John. London: Athlone. Schreier, Herb et al. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Durham and London: Duke. Spatz, Benjamin. London and New York: Routledge. Spencer, Dale. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. New York: London: Routledge. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty and Gunew, Sneja. His research explores various aspects of the relationship between sport, gender and the body, with a particular focus on martial arts and combat sports.
Catherine currently competes in boxing and muay thai. As such, our data suggests that manoeuvring within normative cultural parameters of gender may, ironically, help to stimulate change in its structure of CITATION meanings, given that the feminine performances of these fighters ultimately posed symbolic challenges to cultural constructions Channon, Alex and Phipps, Catherine.
Such resistance can come in the form of passive of women participating in martial arts and combat sports MACS of or overt opposition to participation [e. Commonly viewed as gender difference [Mennesson ; Velija et al. MACS participation. Rather than a fixed set of characteristics arising from nationality and sexuality, to name a few , but the resulting multiplicity and residing within individuals, femininity is discursively constituted of femininities shares an orientation towards substantiating a public and performatively manifested — i.
Typically associated with Meanwhile, critical theorists such as Raewyn Connell  female bodies and the lives of women, femininity is most readily understand constructions of femininity — particularly when such intelligible when it is considered as oppositional to corresponding constructions are embodied by women — as lending themselves to the constructions of masculinity. However, following Mimi Schippers, we subordination of women. In embodiment of gender constructs more than just social identities; it is this model, men and women are recognised as such owing to the also an integral component of the reproduction of sexual inequalities.
There is certainly more that hierarchal gender binaries. While it is abundantly clear that gender does not objectively or could be said around the phenomenon of male femininity but, for lack of space, it is beyond statically exist in binary form, it is nevertheless often the case that it is socially constructed the scope of this present article to do so. As noted above, this logic has tended to feature in many avoids troubling the hierarchy maintained through normative gender studies of women in MACS.
However, while such theorising has been performance [Griffin ]. And thanks to the stigmatising, homophobic supportive of it. On an individual level, this can prevent modes of femininity practiced by a range of female athletes [e. This largely female, full-contact, combative team sport has provided scholars with ample opportunities to explore the construction of alternative femininities due to its woman-centred and woman-led ethos, its overtly feminised 3 Although this is beyond the scope of the present article, recent research has suggested a much less hostile environment for gay and lesbian athletes in many and often sexualised aesthetic, and the masculine connotations of its sport settings in Western Europe and North America [see Anderson ; Dashper ; physicality.
Roller derby thus serves as an interesting example of the Cunningham ]. However, this does not necessarily mean that heterosexual female potential for women athletes to deliberately adopt overtly feminised athletes are now completely unaffected by the suspicion of lesbianism often attached to styles coupled with visible displays of strength and self-authorisation female masculinity. While the interviewees in constructions of femininity.
The extant research on this sport has the first study were generally participating at lower competitive levels highlighted the need to examine the degree of agency women claim than those in the second study, this was the only notable variation when embodying often overtly sexualised femininities [Beaver ], in the characteristics of either sample with respect to their patterns the ways in which feminine signifiers are re-claimed to denote power of participation.
Across the studies, participants were aged between rather than to balance out the power indicated by masculinity [Carlson years old mean ages of 25 and 29, respectively , all but one ], and exactly what can be described as alternative femininity self-identified as heterosexual with one lesbian participant , and most [Breeze ; Finley ] relative to the concerns about sexual self-identified as White with British Asian women comprising three signification, power, and conceptual integrity outlined above.
Similar findings arose from both studies, which formed the basis of the collaboration represented by this article. With both authors content that the foundations of and mixed martial arts MMA , amongst others. All of these participants were classed as professionals, as they had received a purse from fight promoters; The data discussed in the following sections reveal the ways in furthermore, two of the participants had achieved English titles, two which several women involved in competitive combat sports think had achieved British titles, and ten had achieved World titles as their about, construct, and perform femininity.
Our findings reveal a highest competitive achievements to date. These interviews took place problematisation of the assumed incompatibility of femininity and in mid, lasting between 30 and 45 minutes. This is perhaps femininity was not correspondingly sacrificed or diminished by unsurprising given that, among all MACS, these types of disciplines their engagement in competitive fighting. Nonetheless, that women men [Matthews ].
I love being able to do this. Like, girls are doing it, too, so how did not believe that their enjoyment of what are often considered can you still call it that? Sara quintessentially masculine activities made them any less able to claim or present a feminine identity. Either — that kind of thing. While some MACS. Elsewhere, Rachel criticised those she described as themselves desired. Helen Therefore, it was apparent that the means and methods of defining and As much as I love fighting, I still love the sense of being a girl.
Returning to the question of with their identity as fighters. Indirectly approaching this topic and drinking and dancing in pubs and nightclubs — presumably, given the largely seemed to be the best way to avoid the issue being discussed in overly analytical and heterosexual character of our sample, in the company of men. And I think that makes the sport [seem] quite sporty but I always try to keep something, just a little softer, more accessible I guess for the general population.
Sylvia Similarly, interviewees often noted that developing greater female Yeah, some people joke about it, these [pink] gloves I mean, but participation in their sports could be achieved by including what pink or black or whatever, it still hurts when they hit! Pink primary goals, preferring to identify as competitive athletes instead, gloves still give black eyes, after all! Evelyn represents the most compelling finding of our studies. However, several interviewees argued that presenting a feminine Femininity as Useful identity for MACS, or as individual fighters, was useful for more than just developing participation.
Sophie development. So, [femininity] tends to work in my favour. Effectively symbolising a re-articulated vision of what constitutes such a Taken together, the findings of our studies reveal how specific woman, the feminine and powerful fighter became an important symbol articulations of femininity are purposefully chosen by women for our interviewees.
And, with this in mind, they articulated specific ways in which femininity could be In fact I think of myself as more of a woman because I see happily accommodated with the demands of MACS participation. In a context of increasing mainstream visibility for women in high- profile combat sports [e. While we do not deny that pressure to conform to feminine norms is often exerted on athletic women, nor that such a process can be restrictive or harmful to the development of their abilities and thus damaging to the gender-subversive potential of MACS among other, related activities , we nevertheless argue that, in other cases, the exact opposite may be true: women can choose to be feminine, doing so on their own terms and in ways which potentially work in subversive directions.
We conclude this article with a short comment on the limitations of the studies upon which it is based. As with all qualitative research, the subjective nature of the analysis we conducted must be considered, as it is entirely possible that other scholars might have understood and interpreted this data in different ways. Also, our small overall sample size draws the generalizability of our findings into question, while the characteristics of this sample make for something of a partial view on contemporary gender construction given the heterosexuality and whiteness of the participants.
Therefore, the relationships between whiteness, straightness, and femininity in the MACS milieu is something that could warrant specific investigation in future research efforts of this kind, as we have not made these phenomena explicit objects of analysis in this article. Despite these limitations, we hope that our research can provide a useful contribution to colleagues wishing to expand the literature on women, gender, and martial arts.
Women in Combat Sports, Matthews, and Honorata Jakubowska. Anderson, Eric. Masculine Domination. Stanford: Stanford Connell, Raewyn. Cambridge: Polity Press. Breeze, Maddie. Sports and Athletes in Education 6. Butler, Judith. London: Routledge, History of Sport Woman in Sport, edited by Ellen W. Channon, Alex and George Jennings.
Matthews [eds]. Global Follo, Giovanna. Scraton and Anne Flintoff, Oxon: Routledge, Jennings, LA. London: Rowman and Littlefield International. London: SAGE. Guthrie, Sharon R. Kavoura, Anna, Tatian V. Ryba, and Stiliani Chroni. Hardy, Elizabeth. Kimmel, Michael. Krane, Vikki. Quest Athlete as Cultural Icon. Gender Trouble? Sports, Matthews, Christopher R. Bodies, Gender, and Matthews, Christopher R. Gender and Society Wayne Smith, and elke emerald, Abingdon: Routledge, McCaughey, Martha. Muay Thai Boxing. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Schippers, Mimi. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Feminism, Theory, and the Politics of Difference. Oxford: Blackwell. West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. The Dancing Word, his book on how to use the Chinese martial arts in the practice of contemporary theatre, is published by Brills. He studies martial arts with Chen Zhonghua and studied acting and directing with Richard Fowler. He is Associate Professor in the Department of Theatre at the University of Ottawa where he teaches acting and directing. Rather than trying to find a KEYWORDs universal reason for the practice of taolu, this paper proposes to look at the idea of prearranged movement patterns through Taolu, interpretation, credibility, the lens of credibility and decipherability.
These twin concepts, decipherability, Chinese Martial Arts borrowed from the Great Reform movement in 20th century theatre practice, helpfully embrace both the criteria by which the performance of taolu is usually judged and also the deficiencies in our contemporary understanding of reasons behind this CITATION palimpsestic training method.
As conceptual tools, credibility and decipherability also offer us insight into how the practice Mroz, Daniel. This is not a prosaic mystery that will eventually be solved; it is an ultimate mystery, a feature of our experience that will remain impenetrable. I hope that if we consider taolu from this perspective it will relieve us of the preferences, habits and received wisdom with which we usually understand them.
Likewise, should we seem to actually explain taolu in the course of our deliberations, their status as xuan will prevent us from succumbing to the temptation of merely explaining them away. My reason for provisionally declaring the most visible and characteristic aspect of Chinese martial arts to be a mystery comes from my own experience. Looking back over two decades of learning, I see that I take taolu for granted at every level of my engagement with gongfu.
Figure 1. Photo by Satyanarayanan Nair. Photo by Laura Astwood. But, in spite of this, we practitioners continue to entertain opinions — nay wholehearted convictions — about Like the Chinese martial arts, transmission in the Great Reform is based taolu. How are we thinking about them? The Great Reform, the 20th century, they are principally characterized by the requirement or Wielka Reforma, is a term invented by Leon Schiller, a Polish theatre that a theatrical performance be meaningful due to the credibility of the director working between the two world wars.
It refers to the early actions of the performers within a metaphorical staging designed by the 20th century pioneers of theatre who developed modernism and the art director. My engagement with the Great Reform, like my relationship with Chinese martial arts, came first as a practitioner. Zavadsky in turn taught a Polish director named Jerzy performed in a way I respond to? Judgments of authenticity and competence are not my concern here. My objective in introducing decipherability and credibility as tools is not to engage in criticism rendered parochial by the limits of our individual experiences.
Rather, I hope to use these two ideas to examine how we identify and parse the component elements of taolu. I propose that parsing taolu to differentiate their component parts and perceive the relationships between them can be done in two complementary ways, spatiotemporally and culturally. We can examine the actual movements as actions, vectors, trajectories and dynamics. And we can attempt to learn what cultural significance these movements have held. Figure 3: Richard Fowler ca. Photo by Jan Rusz. While this particular movement is very simple foundational movements.
The first exponent to propose an analysis in terms of foundational movements is Hong Junsheng , a student of Chen Fake Hong is not alone in finding two actions at the centre of his martial  and himself a master of the Chen style of taijiquan. While he expresses them using different words, he is describing hand trajectories [see Hong ].
Figure 4: Chen Zhonghua demonstrating the positive circle. Photos courtesy of Chen Zhonghua. Taiwanese choreographer Lin Huaimin is the founder of the renowned an example see - , video 2 opposite of yun shou found in the Cloud Gate Dance Theatre. He has created a cosmopolitan synthesis of second Xiao Wu Tao, the short fighting set learned by novice Beijing North American modern dance that he learned at the Martha Graham Opera students.
To this end, he has collaborated with gongfu teacher Adam Hsu and Formally and pragmatically, the idea of deriving all Chinese martial Chen taijiquan teacher Xiong Wei. Lin is even more ambitious than movement from two circular trajectories executed simultaneously, Hong and Zhou. He believes that the principal characteristic of all sequentially or in syncopation is compelling. I have found it to be an Chinese movement — dance, theatre and martial arts — is the sequential effective shortcut for learning new taolu and for maintaining old ones.
There fundamental movement training in person in October of when I remains a vast distance between relatively simple foundational moves took a master class with Ms. Lee Ching Chun, the co-artistic director of and sophisticated choreographies.
Martial arts techniques whos who in the martial arts
What did movements made up of fundamental spatiotemporal units mean to their creators? They are first and foremost palimpsestic and speak in a mix of archaic and contemporary terms. A little familiarity with Daoist ritual and Chinese theatre, and with the three conflicts that led to the partial erasure of a culture that could recognize these elements — the Taiping Rebellion , the Opera Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion — allows us to imagine an earlier time when the performance of taolu functioned simultaneously as combative training, theatrical entertainment and religious acts of self-consecration and exorcism [Holcombe ].
Today, we often lack the interpretive tools to see the vestiges of these elements present in the taolu we train. These punctuate the different sections or phases of the taolu. A diagrammatic stepping pattern that creates a two-dimensional shape on the floor. These can be derived from religious practice, which was for example the original context of walking the nine points of the luoshu figure 6 , which is used as a training tool in the martial art of baguazhang.
Taolu may also contain theatrical characters. Figure 7: Author demonstrates the shou yin in the Wudang Presumably, after killing the six generals, he needed to sharpen his Dan Pai taiji. As they are in fact deities, the appearances of these theatrical characters are also religious references. The evocation of deified figures such as Guan Yu and Lu Dong Bin is considered to have an exorcistic and purifying effect in Chinese normative religion [Riley ]. Concrete fighting mudras, such as the closing movement in the Wudang Dan Pai Xuan techniques are introduced, repeated, developed and varied.
Here the shou yin for the fiery heart, Conceptual meanings and imaginal2 actions only known to the which resembles the head of a deer, is placed beneath the open hand performer may also be present. Some taolu: spatiotemporal form and cultural form. These axes are pragmatic. The movements that have been subsequently conditioned by cultural first set, or Yi Lu, has 81 movements and the second, or Er Lu, has 64, practice or that they are cultural practices that happen to also be useful which corresponds to the 81 chapters of the Laozi and the 64 chapters for combat training. Exclusive emphasis on either stance jettisons of the Zhouyi, both classics of ancient Chinese literature.
And yet, we appear to be devoid of religious and theatrical elements — or, at least, have all had the experience of finding a performance credible, even if they are quite hard to spot in contemporary practice. They have clear markers indicating the visualized and visionary experiences of Islamic mysticism that exist between sensory experience and discursive thought [Corbin viii-ix]. Barba theorized that Taijiquan Seminar and Competition on Daqingshan in Shandong, the principal goal of rigorous training was to cultivate the attribute of China.
I was surprised and pleased to receive a score of 8. My teacher Chen Zhonghua later explained to before we can attribute meaning to them. The actual spatiotemporal parameters of taijiquan, he said, were unknown to the judges, so 1. The judges found my performance that are precarious and require greater effort to maintain than those credible; my teacher less so. Because they have control of their balance, they can move in unexpected directions without signaling their intent. And, as My personal parameters for credibility were further challenged when they can change at any time, we watch them.
I watched the tui shou athletes preparing to compete. Martial arts competitors in China appear to focus either on the presentation of taolu 2. Principle of Opposition — Opposition can be spatial or temporal. Competitive Spatially, lines of tension divide the body and create potential energy. Speaking to a few of the competitors, I learned the waist sinks down.
Tui shou players rarely over here! Imagine my surprise when I observed that they were 3. Principle of Consistent Inconsistency — This refers to the internal not able to perform taolu credibly at all. In the case of a codified system stuck in repetitive loops and ignored postural requirements. Encased like Chinese theatre, the idiosyncrasies of the form apply to all its in the structural demands of taolu, they entirely lost their predatory practitioners and recur thematically throughout its repertoire.
In less menace and feline grace. They could not transfer the powerful strictly codified genres, such as cinema acting, clowning, physical credibility they demonstrated in their wrestling to their taolu. A strong attempt to structurally identify what we are actually responding to when we attribute credibility to a performance has been 4. Principle of Equivalency — Everyday actions are decomposed and proposed by theatre director Eugenio Barba.
In , inspired by the rigorous training of such traditional Asian dance-theatre forms as Indian I have found these principles to be great pedagogical tools for actors, Kathakali, Japanese Noh, Indonesian Topeng and Chinese Jingju, all of dancers and martial artists-in-training. Balance and opposition are as which he had seen while on tour around the world, Barba gathered a important to a beginning student assimilating postures and stepping group of master performers from different traditions for a month-long patterns as they are to an intermediate student practicing fighting workshop where he asked them to demonstrate and teach one another games with a partner.
Personal and stylistic idiosyncrasies and the the exercises that they had learned as children on the first day of their relationship between them, meanwhile, can be perceived quickly by apprenticeships. Despite their usefulness, however, in my experience, and John Dahms practicing competitive tui shou. As an artist, using partner games from Choy Li Fut and taijiquan. How do to maintain the credible causality created by physical contact when not I acquire a particular skill?
How do I practice a particular method? How touching, going from the credibility of a concrete result on a partner to do I choose between different training methods? How do I express the the more subjective credibility of indirect action across space via non- fruition of my practice? My ongoing question with respect to credibility has to do with causality: Over time, I differentiated our games into two main categories: How is the immediately credible causality of two taijiquan players avoidance and entanglement. When players are touching, these are wrestling freely and spontaneously reflected in a set solo choreographic striking where one avoids being hit and grappling where one sequence?
This transfer is germane to both the practice of taolu and welcomes becoming entangled , but as larger metaphors they embrace to theatre practice, where actors and dancers need to repeat known interpersonal actions both physical and social. Photos by Laura Astwood. This grant offered artists working in the university system being transformed into pigs by Circe the witch, in our version, a single funding for practical artistic research.
I used this grant to found my hallucinating, shipwrecked stranger is discovered washed up on the studio Les Ateliers du corps, which for the first three years was a small beach by a lonely woman. In this example, our Circe talks to herself and group of emerging artists who met for nine hours a week to learn the her conflicting inner voices played by two performers. The participants in Les Ateliers du Corps learned Chen style taijiquan, both from me and from Chen Zhonghua My combined experiences of training and teaching martial arts and on his regular visits to Ottawa.
When we interact with a parameter, be developing myself. This gives us the space we and choreography. The next clip4 is a fragment from Nor the Cavaliers need to interact with the multiple variables taolu conjure. Who Come with Us — an original performance about the conquest of Mexico that I created and directed in residence at the National Theatre When we perform and watch taolu, we privilege different kinds of School of Canada.
Here, improvised partner entanglement about interactivity; we might expect taolu to be credible in terms of our a single wooden staff is used to dramatize the many battles led by existing repertoire of fighting techniques and power generation Conquistador Hernan Cortez as he fought his way from the coast to the methods. But there are always techniques and methods of which we Mexica capital, Tenochtitlan.
The text he is speaking is a translation are ignorant. But here, too, there will be gaps in our knowledge. The Requiremento was are palimpsestic. Those who subsequently resisted conquest were considered to to our perceptions. We took the title of the performance itself from this text. Questions that might allow our attributions of credibility to become more conscious and nuanced would then include: What does the taolu The effect I had hoped to create by not actually setting the individual suggest we should interact with?
How does it accomplish this? How movements of the fight over the staff was the kind of spontaneity and is the player interpreting those suggestions? They are using set fragments of parameters and the gaps in our experience. This next fragment is from Circe 6, a performance I created at the Canada Dance Festival, which is a national festival that takes place in Ottawa every spring.
The Paper Canoe. Corbin, Henry. Holcombe, Charles. The Historian. Blackwell: Hoboken. Hong, Junsheng. Edmonton: Hunyuantaiji Press. Kang, Ge Wu. Santa Cruz: Plum. Morris, Steve. Chinese Theatre and the Actor in Performance. Ruffini, Franco. Denmark: Icarus. Schino, Mirella. Alchemists of the Stage, translated by Paul Warrington. Wan, Lai Sheng. Wushu Hui Zun. Taipei: Lion Books. Zhou, Baofu. Hall of Gongfu. Kungfu Loung. The arts at times has the status of an adoption, where the disciple-master meaning of a movement is normally a combination of defensive and relationship is identical to that of father and son.
This is certainly offensive maneuvers. Today, however, it is taught more openly. These include skills gong as bodily abilities which make techniques more effective. One martial art is distinguished from another not necessarily by the Clearly, training that led to the development of gong was held in high techniques but by the skills used to apply the techniques effectively. But what exactly is gong and why is it so important? Can the Western philosophical tradition tell us anything about the difference For example, most martial arts, including Western boxing, have a between gong and fa?
Can it explain why gong training is viewed as straight punch. Often the straight punch of one style will appear very superior to training only fa? Within a style, practitioners can differ in how well they execute I examine this distinction. I draw specific examples of the kinds of those body mechanics. These differences both between and within styles skills under discussion from a particular style of taijiquan — Hong are best thought of as differences in gong. The skills that make the techniques boxing. Without the development of gong, in taijiquan practice.
The distinction between gong and fa is ubiquitous techniques will either not work at all or will only work on inferior in Chinese martial arts. Although I focus on one specific style of martial opponents. Of course, there are skills involved in the execution of any technique. These skills are usually a basic level or foundational level of skills sometimes called jibengong. The agreement basic coordination, flexibility, etc. Verbal teachings also stress that the relationship effectively, they are rarely sufficient.
However, taolu have much greater significance in Chinese culture than being merely a set of self-defense movements. For a more extensive consideration of the significance of taolu, see the article in this issue by Daniel Mroz . Nulty These skills also contribute, no doubt, to combat effectiveness, but they training which makes the body harder and more resistant to strikes. For example, contemporary Chinese wushu, with its standardized It is the second sub-category of martial skill that is the focus of this routines, is impressive to watch because of the speed, flexibility, and article, and the one that I believe is referred to in the common sayings at gymnastics incorporated into the routines, but it is sometimes criticized the start of this article.
It is sometimes said that true martial skill should by traditional martial artists as lacking martial content i. The routines are beautiful against younger assailants. Indeed, it is claimed that this kind of skill to watch but, according to these critics, do not constitute legitimate or gong training is a necessary condition for martial ability in old age combat training. Refinement is a matter of degree order to attain a high level of combat effectiveness.
These are the skills and different martial artists will manifest abilities with differing degrees needed to know how to fight and to defend oneself against an attacker. I will explore what such differences in refinement A further distinction is needed at this point, however, insofar as there amount to later in this article. Brute skills are easier to understand. If practitioner A can or will be viewed as incomplete from the perspective of some move his fist from point x to point y in less time than practitioner B, practitioners of taijiquan.
I will avoid entirely, as did Master Hong then we can say practitioner A has more speed-skill than practitioner B. The same can be said for to address adequately the Chinese metaphysics needed to explain these concepts. Most importantly, martial arts styles which include these elements tend to agree that correct physical training including structural alignment, correct use of force, and proper breathing and relaxation are necessary to develop these more esoteric aspects of the art. My discussion of martial gong will attempt to begin at the 5 The separation between athletic skill and martial skill, according to some beginning.
Critics claim that students perform the choreographed routines beautifully and with a high degree of skill, yet when the students spar, their techniques have no significant relation to the routines. If they have sparring skills at all, those skills are developed independently of the routines. For example, the sparring 7 We can think of iron palm and iron body training here.
The practitioners of of kung fu practitioners might be indistinguishable from kickboxing. To my knowledge, these skills develop greater striking power because their fists or palms are harder, and their no compelling data exist which would show the frequency or extent of this phenomenon bodies are less likely to be affected by strikes because of their conditioning. Having a harder among practitioners of Chinese martial arts. Finding good data is especially challenging fist is not itself a technique but it will make fist techniques more effective.
Hence, an absence of Master Chen , and other notable Chen stylists in numerous publications and traditional martial artists in MMA competitions would not be a sufficient indicator of a interviews. The conceptual distinction between athletic skills and martial skills is nonetheless valuable as it affords practitioners a chance to examine the 9 It is sometimes said that training should convert jing into qi, and qi into skills developed in their own practice in relation to martial efficacy.
Wuji is prior to taiji and is said to give birth to taiji and from taiji 10, things 6 Clearly brute skills and athletic skills often overlap. Speed and strength are emerge. There is much to be said about how martial arts training is a form of spiritual useful in both solo performance and combat. Nulty The Phenomenology of Embodied Skill According to Merleau-Ponty, this discernment is not a matter of the child having an inner representation, or the result of some process Merleau-Ponty rejected both empiricist accounts of perception and of calculating distances; rather, this knowing is presented in how the intellectualist accounts.
Taylor Carmen aptly describes these rejected world shows up.
Merleau-Ponty city drivers learn to perceive when a parking space is large enough argues instead that the body has its own kind of intentionality, its own to accommodate their car. Country drivers less familiar with parallel way of making sense of the environment, which cannot be accounted parking often agonize over whether or not they can fit into the space.
The two types of drivers differ not only in how the space appears to them, but also in terms of how the car feels backing into the parking A phenomenological analysis of perception and behavior reveals that space i. The city driver feels the body does not respond to objective external stimuli via sensations when to cut the wheel to slip into the spot without clipping the other which are isomorphic to those stimuli, nor does it wait to be animated car, while the country driver starts and stops repeatedly while checking by the mind, but actively enhances its perception of the environment the mirrors or perhaps backing over the curb.
We might say the city leading to a greater refinement in skilled coping. The objective features of the space, such as its more and more refined perceptions of the current situation. It is easy enough to provide Merleau-Ponty uses the examples of a woman with a feather in her hat examples of this relationship between the embodied agent and his avoiding anything overhead that may break it off and a driver entering environment.
From a seated position, size and volume which is established by comparison with other objects. Objects have meaning or significance that emerge from our prior to the grasping attempts. After enough successes and failures engagements with them. Objects can now appear to be within reach or out of reach.
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Nulty significance or solicitations she encounters. The body is aware of deviations from what it finds optimal environment features? This equilibrium is explained further by Merleau- organism. For example, we naturally hold objects in our hands at the optimal Merleau-Ponty uses the analogy of a soap bubble to illustrate how no distance for viewing, and we position our bodies in such a way as to representation of the end state or goal is needed to explain how the get the best view of distal objects and events. When we reach for the embodied agent moves toward an optimal gestalt. The final spherical objects that appear within reach while sitting at a table and writing, result does not have a causal role to play in the bubble forming.
Rather we do in fact succeed in grasping them. As Dreyfus notes, there is more involved than just a causal relation when My body is geared onto the world when my perception the agent responds to a solicitation: presents me with a spectacle as varied and as clearly articulated as possible, and when my motor intentions, as they unfold, According to Merleau-Ponty, in absorbed coping the body of receive the responses they expect from the world. This the performer is not just responding to causal forces like a soup maximum sharpness of perception and action points clearly bubble; it is solicited by the situation to perform a series of to a perceptual ground, a basis of my life, a general setting in movements that feel appropriate without the agent needing in any which my body can co-exist with the world.
The infant is not cognitively sophisticated enough to represent those The distance from me to the object is not a size which increases goals to itself, but feedback from its interaction with the environment or decreases, but a tension which fluctuates around a norm. An reinforces or inhibits some movements instead of others. And, oblique position of the object in relation to me is not measured importantly, that feedback has intentional content. Nulty relationship with the environment without making use of mental inside a cube not touching any of the sides to get a sense of experiencing representations; the embodied agent also refines what counts as a the kua and hip movement.
In fact, taijiquan instructors in this lineage good gestalt. Second, the agent becomes more skilled at coping with prioritize training the crotch area. Third, this refinement in skill is concurrent with an enrichment of salient aspects Instruction regarding these two circles does not happen primarily of the environment, i. I now want in a verbal form, and as training progresses, the requirements for to employ these three elements to say something about the difference correct movement cannot be seen but only felt.
Indeed, solo performances of martial techniques are often quite impressive in terms Part of the problem is that the novice practitioner is likely to have a of their athleticism. Additionally, because they have no sense or feel for their kua, the novice will misinterpret At this level of learning technique, gong training may or may not be their visual perception of what the teacher is doing.
In other words, introduced. It is important to realize that there is more than one way a the novice lacks the training to pick up salient features of their visual person can move his body into a particular position, and more than one experience, much like the country driver who cannot determine way a person can use his body to issue force. To the untrained eye, two whether the parking space is large enough for parallel parking.
Thus, people may appear to be performing the same movement since their the student is in danger of copying the external movement of the torsos, limbs, and overall postures seem to be identical. However, which teacher without grasping the subtle underlying mechanics — in other parts of the body initiate the movement, and how those parts perform words, training fa without any gong.
Master that area rather than simply a physical structure. There is a feeling of sitting down 13 For example, Master Liu will often have the student stand behind him while while the practitioner is standing. The hip joint feels as if it is floating he performs various movements, usually the positive and negative circles or movements in a contained space, free to rotate. We could imagine a ball floating from the form. Nulty performs the positive and negative circles correctly. The teacher might The knees cannot shift or collapse inward; they simply change their also perform the movement incorrectly as the student would, in order direction upward or downward as the leg rotates.
When the right leg to illustrate the difference. Thus, the teacher leads the student toward a rotates negatively and the knee points down, the left leg will rotate better sense of what optimal movement and position feel like. This action of the legs will cause the waist to turn to the left. Likewise, the opposite action of With correct training of the positive and negative circles, awareness the legs will cause the waist to turn right. By pushing into the ground and control of the kua develops. The kua movement becomes with the feet while at the same time rotating the legs in coordination, coordinated with the movement of other parts of the body.
In Hong the torso is made to rotate. The torso does not initiate its own Chuan Chen Shi taijiquan, that coordination begins to produce a kind of movement or turning. The various movements of the routines are now expressions or manifestations of chansijin, and proper Westerners are often more familiar with punches thrown by boxers, training of the routines becomes another way of training gong.
To get a better sense of the basic aspects of chansijin, hold your arm Boxers are taught that the arm muscles are relatively weak, and a straight out in front of you. Notice that, by rotating the arm, you can stronger force is delivered through the arm when the force is generated turn your hand palm up or palm down.
There are two directions of in the waist and legs. Westerners see boxers pivot on their toes while rotation. When the palm turns up, consider this a positive rotation; turning their waists. Western striking arts such as boxing advocate a when the palm turns down, consider this a negative rotation. Now sit more global approach which relies on the entire body when issuing on the floor with your legs straight out in front of you.
You can keep force. Much like a boxer needs to turn his waist to issue a powerful the entire leg rigid and you can rotate the leg from the hip joint inward, punch, the taijiquan practitioner is training the coordination of or you can rotate your legs outward.
For most people, the hips naturally his legs, waist, and arms to issue force more effectively. Recall our rotate outward and the feet point outward at 45 degrees when sitting in experiment of rotating your arms positively and negatively. In a similar that position. When the knee and foot turn out away from while throwing a punch,14 the taijiquan practitioner rotates her arms the other leg, consider that a positive rotation; when the knee and foot while striking. The rotation of the arms must be coordinated with rotate in toward the other leg, consider that a negative rotation.
Notice the rotation of the waist and the rotation of the legs. The speed and too that your torso can turn to the left or to the right. Consider the direction of the rotation must be coordinated from the feet through the former a positive rotation and the latter a negative rotation. This is of course over-simplified but limbs. The points of rotation, such as the hip, shoulders, and elbows it should get the idea across.
You could In other words, the proper bodily structure and alignment must be have the right arm and right leg perform a positive rotation, or you maintained while the rotations are occurring. As with the rotations, might have the right arm and left leg both perform a positive rotation. You of force.
As an experiment, stand in front of a wall with your right foot about two feet from the wall, and your left foot farther back in what is However, taijiquan is not practiced sitting down; it is practiced standing sometimes called a bow stance, forward stance, or hill climbing stance. The feet will now be planted on the floor and so cannot turn Place your right hand on the wall about shoulder height and prepare to in or out as they can when seated. Rotating the legs while standing push into the wall with your right hand powered by your rear left foot. The knees will appear to point upward slightly or downward slightly instead of simply pointing in or out.
Nulty earlobe. Now begin pushing, driving your hand into the wall by pushing optimal body position. Notice that your shoulder will start to fatigue moving through the body in some sort of spiral pattern. Chansijin is the quickly and much of the force from your rear foot is lost as you fight result of proper coordination of the entire body. While pushing with constant force, let your shoulder drop as low as possible no need The solo practice of the routines helps the practitioner recognize to force it down.
You will feel a greater pressure now in your rear left optimal body positions in relation to their own movements. She can foot and the right hand. You have established a more direct line of force learn that she has to move her weight to one foot before stepping with between your foot and your hand. You can also relax your body more the other, or to prevent her hips and knees from shifting instead of with improved alignment. She can develop an isolated sense of optimal body position, but by itself this increased awareness cannot tell her how to find and Now notice the position of the tip of your elbow.
Is it pointed directly maintain an optimal body position in relation to the opponent.
The Story of the Kang Duk Won in America
The down toward the floor or is it pointed sideways to some degree? The relax the arm and let the tip of the elbow point down naturally, you practitioner learns to cope better with her own bodily movements, will again find a greater connection to the rear foot than if the elbow is and, as a result, parts of her own body and their positions become more pointing sideways to any degree. When taijiquan practitioners practice salient. In outside the realm of purposeful control. This more refined ability further enhances the more because the body has become more meaningful. The body has transmission of force.
One becomes When the positive and negative rotations of the limbs and torso are aware of the hip joint, individual vertebrae, the tailbone, the shoulder properly coordinated, and the proper alignment and body structure is joint, and other areas of the body. Awareness permeates the body in a maintained, practitioners will begin to feel this connectivity as diagonal new way, or perhaps we should say the body is aware in a new way.
For example, one diagonal line will extend from the rear left foot to the front right hand while turning The gong training of the positive and negative circles is further refined right in a right-sided positive circle. The force is transmitted from the and gains new significance as additional skills are developed. Practice of the routines, which incorporates the gong of the positive and negative circles, leads to self-knowledge in the form of a radically Recall the experiment of pushing against the wall.
With enough enriched experience of embodiment. The goal of the basic training and routine training is to reduce the places in the body at which force is 16 Chansijin actually involves more than I have just described. For example, the prevented from traveling directly from the ground to the point at which degree angle plays a central role in this system of taijiquan. It is beyond the scope the force is issued. The body is learning to recognize and maintain of this article to explain all the structural requirements of this type of taijiquan, but it is important to note that these are physical requirements, not metaphysical imaginings.
If you are a classically trained martial artist, kali can free up your movements. I published the first article ever written about the Charlotte, N. Because I was a writer I was personally invited to the camps and seminars. At the seminars I trained and took specific notes. My sparring partner and I would then discuss every detail on the way home. On Monday, with all the information fresh in my head, I would teach what I learned to my students. Train, study, practice, teach — this is the formula that I sued to compose articles.
At the Chicago camp that I trained at, Dan took the time to write out a lesson plan for me to follow in teaching kali to my students. In the summer of or , I promoted a JKD concepts camp, but instead of the Bruce Lee students I hired the second generation associate instructors. This caused some in the Inosanto camp to be miffed with me. At no time did I have an interest in becoming an apprentice instructor. I was there to train, learn, and write articles.
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By , Dan had a girlfriend who prohibited him from hanging out with the guys. My research was about over anyway. In , I published the first book about the JKD concepts method. Dan and Paula were provided a manuscript to review. I rode with them on the way back from the lake photo shoot in the summer of The photos can be found on their web site and in my book. Dan endorsed the book before it came out in After I promoted the concepts camp I heard that they no longer endorsed my book.
I had taken a lot of my time to research and write the first book about the JKD concepts method. Funny how money can cause your friends to turn against you. Every research technique was alway professional. A: No. I have never taught an art or style and called it JKD. At seminars I have taught a class in trapboxing and Jun Fan Kickboxing, focus pad drills, stick fighting, etc. I was attracted to JKD partially because I was a trained philosopher. I asked his students what they meant, but everyone had a different answer.
Based on my training, observation, and research I came up with my own definition. As a teacher I must evaluate the needs of my students. I feel that character development is an attribute that has a higher priority than self defense. I have been successful, I hope, in merging the two together. I teach in a classical or traditional manner the realistic self defense skills from a variety of arts.
Rather than name each art, I simply will call it karate or taekwondo or martial arts. In my opinion, Bruce Lee was not known for superior character traits and JKD had not been used to influence character development. As a result, I have not elected to adopt a total JKD method.
4 Kang Duk Won
A: You say. I started it out as a promo for the concepts group. He paid for much of the initial expense. There was strong competitiveness between the concepts and orginal art groups back then. This only drew more attention, so the camp was highly successful. We offered the camp for the next five years to huge profits which were split among the instructors.
Unfortunately, because I promoted the original art the door was forever closed to me by the concepts group. While I have always been a taekwondo, karate, kickboxing, jiujitsu instructor, I found that I was being labeled as an Original JKD instructor. I was hired by Panther in to offer a JKD kickboxing video series.
My kickboxing method is JKD influenced. I will add that my Jun Fan Kickboxing tapes are a higher level of instruction than what is currently available on video concerning the full contact kickboxing method. A: Yes. Remember that Bruce was highly influenced by the karate competitors of the s. Bruce Lee was an advanced stand-up martial artist with extraordinary skills. The way he developed his skills not the skills themselves is called JKD. Bruce developed his method in the s. It took the rest of us 20 years to catch up to him. So is JKD an art or a philosophy? Bruce was afraid that students would mistake the physical techniques for the art of JKD.
JKD is a philosophy for discovery. It is simply, in my opinion, a conceptual framework, a way of looking at things. As a result, my martial arts in general are influenced by JKD philosophy. A: The reputation of Joe Lewis was taught to me by my first instructor, Mr. Lewis had knocked out seeral Korean champions in the U. Korea grudge match. I had been taught that Americans were inferior to Koreans when it came to fighting. If Joe Lewis could fight back, so could I.
I was pretty disconcerted by Korean instructors in the ss. In , I was able to meet Joe Lewis. Joe had returned home to Knightdale, N. When I found out he was within driving distance I immediately called him up and set up an interview and sparring session. I consider Joe Lewis to be the most knowledgeable fighting expert in the world.
Before karate, he was a wrestler. A weight trained athlete, he looked like a Mr. America contestant in the s. In , Joe created kickboxing. In those early years there were no rules. Knees, elbows, takedowns were all open to interpretation by the referee. A: Of course. My sparring partner and I would drive to Raleigh, N. We would meet Joe, tell a few jokes, then dress out and spar. I loved to spar, and Joe was perhaps the best in the world. Joe was training for his comeback fights for the PKA.
Joe knew that I was a writer, so here again a martial arts personality was willing to open up and give me all the time I wanted. After a workout Joe would critique my level and give me some pointers to work on. We would then clean up and go out to dinner.
After dinner we would usually go back to the gym, and I would take some notes for articles. Joe and I were pretty good friends, and he knew I would cover his backside and write only what was good. I set up quite a few seminars for Joe and negotiated a fight or two. He would often come up to my home in Christiansburg, VA. Today, 25 years later, I teach at his conference and serve on his board of directors. After all these years under strict Korean control, I decided that if I ever had the chance to begin an organization, I would make it something that I would want to join.
Joe joined me in Bill Wallace joined in about AIKIA was the first independent teachers organization in Most of our members are either taekwondo or karate instructors who mix kickboxing, jiujitsu, JKD, hapkido, etc. Also, I developed the first ever Mixed Martial Arts World Federation to address the particular needs of instructors who teach a blend of kickboxing, grappling, and karate or TKD. Q: You actually spearheaded the mixed martial arts movement with your Karate College summer camp.
How did that get started? He did so. The next year all four of us were hired to teach at a camp in New York. On the way back home I told Jeff Smith that Joe and I were going to hold a camp the next year and asked if he wanted in. He did. I hired Bill Wallace and offered the first Karate College in After , I started offering a mix of several martial arts. It was highly successful. Every magazine carried a story about the camp.
Q: You seem to have a special way of determining just what the martial arts public wants. All ere very successful. How do you do it? A: By being a student. I go on what is of interest to me personally. I promote people or arts that I personally respect. The tournament fighters used this philosophy.
Joe Lewis and Bruce Lee used this philosophy. Borrow from all styles, and use what works. Bruce was greatly influenced by the American tournament champions. He practiced boxing and sparring methods along side Joe Lewis. He learned kicks from Chuck Norris. Jhoon Rhee taught him the spin kicks and how to break boards with the speed break. Wally Jay taught Bruce jiujitsu. In , Professor Jay introduced Bruce to the concept of training outside his system of wing chun gung fu. Gene LeBelle taught Bruce submission holds. So Bruce was very much influenced by the tournament players of the s.
But because of his study of philosophy, Bruce recognized the more important attributes. I call this the WOO factor. A jump spinning hook kick has a very brief WOO. A jab has a very high WOO factor. You can use it under most circumstances. You end up with a system drawn from many arts, tailor made to your specific attributes. The tournament champions used this method all along.
Bruce was better at conceptualizing the method. What can you tell us about that? A: Joe Lewis was the first to tell me that Bruce got all or most of his philosophy from Jiddu Krishnamurti. Bruce hurt his back in late For six months he was unable to get a good workout, so he read books.
Linda Lee says he studied, dissected, and rewrote so much in his Krishnamurti books that it became hart to differentiate between the Krishnamurti and Bruce Lee notes. Bruce created JKD in He taught JKD as an art. He promoted guys like Ted Wong to level two, and Dan Inosant and Stirling Silliphant received certification for level three. The levels were assigned according to the number of years completed under Bruce.
Obviously, Dan Inosanto is more skilled than screenwriter Stirling Silliphant, but both received certificates for level three in JKD because both completed three years of study under Bruce. Remember that JKD the style only lasted three years from until , so no one could go higher than three. You can only experience it. This is pure Krishnamurti philosophy, but Bruce gave no credit to Krishnamurti.
By the end of , Bruce had closed all his JKD clubs. He told Dan that Dan could teach JKD to a small group of less than six students, but if he ever went commercial, Bruce would be very disappointed. The JKD concept represents that year in which Bruce converted his original art to the Krishnamurti philosophy. A: My 1st through 5th dan ranks are in ITF style taekwondo.
Also, I have received black belts in hapkido, jiujitsu, karate, tang soo do, moo duk kwan, and a letter of authorization to teach JKD from Joe Lewis. In , I became a student of Joe Lewis. Lewis promoted me to 6th dan in , 7th dan in , and 8th dan in My 8th dan was co-signed andco-authorized by bill Wallace and presented to me at Karate College in a surprise ceremony.
Inside, I was jumping with joy, but outside I had to maintain a demeanor as emcee for the Karate College graduation ceremony. I have also received various diplomas from organizations around the world, including a lifetime sokeship council award and several regional Hall of Fame tributes.
After quite a few years of a loss of contact, my first taekwondo instructor, Whit Davis, and I accidentally met at a dinner. It was like old friends meeting. He has promoted me to 8th dan in taekwondo moo duk kwan and named me as inheritor and administrative 9th dan to the American Moo Duk Kwan Council. Today, it is authorized Roanoke, Va.
GM Davis is still a tough guy. He and Joe Lewis are two of a kind. At the same promotion, Bill Wallce received the 10th dan. I am honored to receive a certificate from GM DePasquale. I venture to guess that there are no other JKD instructors who can make that claim. It was a different organization back then. Today, like everyone else, if I pay the fee I can buy the certificates.
The attraction of WTF is the Olympic connection. However, after Dr. I have read that taekwondo will be out of the Olympics in the future. Karate or kickboxing will be introduced to take its place. These organizations are going to have to start cracking down on the scandals and rip-offs. Actually, I think that anyone who has paid hundreds of dollars for certificates has been ripped off. A: On a national basis, I established a track record as a writer since I have written most about the philosophy of JKD.
As a promoter, I think the real attention was cemented with the promotion of the Karate College from to present. Locally, I am known as a teacher and professor at Radford University. Since I have taught at RU since , there are literally thousands of students now in professional positions who once took a course in taekwondo, karate, jiujitsu, kickboxing, or self defense from me.
A: My utmost desire is to follow the teaching of Jesus Christ. I provide the same respect to the 1st dan as I would the 10th dan. I hope that each member of AIKIA and each participant at Karate College will be able to say that they received more than what they paid for. Q: Do you feel like patriotism, God, and country are more popular subjects of conversation today? We were created. We call that creator God. I see no controversy in that statement. I am glad to see a more accepting attitude toward patriotism and belief in God.
At our Karate College we pay a special tribute to our American heroes, guys who have served in the armed forces. Together we recite the Pledge of Allegiance. Martial arts is all about core beliefs. Every warrior must serve a master. To serve God as master is a core belief. A: Technically, no college or university will develop a separate department for martial arts when the arts fit so perfectly into physical education, philosophy, etc. Classes include advanced techniques, philosophy, history, self defense, etc. The student also takes classes in kinesiology, exercise philosophy, training, first aid, and general education courses.
A minor or cognate in sport administration, commercial fitness, teaching, coaching, marketing, etc. Just go to the www. If you have a successful karate or taekwondo program, you can afford to offer other arts like JKD kickboxing, jiujitsu, mixed martial arts,etc. My goal is to turn out black belts with college degrees who have the knowledge and skills to become professional martial artists. They can choose any art or style so long as they understand the history, culture, and teaching methodology behind the profession of martial arts education.
What I teach, I simply call martial arts. I have tried putting a label on it, original JKD, jhapkido, trapboxing, etc. Nothing really works because I am continuously researching and updating my information. I think being a martial arts instructor will one day be a sought-after position.